The theory attends to the ecologies or environments of communities in which social institutions succeed or fail in maintaining order in public places. Arguably, the success of a given neighborhood or community is based upon the effective collective use of skills, resources, focus, and energy to solve problems and enhance the quality of life in order to deter criminal activity. Social disorganization theory argues that because of failures in the skills and networking abilities of community organizations, whether they be educational, business, law enforcement, social services, health care, or religious organizations, a specific neighborhood or community can experience high crime rates through a breakdown in social order and a lack of compliance with social rules. Quetelet studied various urban geographical areas and determined that the crime rates in each area were stable over long periods of time regardless of the race, nationality, or national origin of an area's residents at a given point in time.
Introduction Criminologythe scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior. Criminologists attempt to build theories that explain why crimes occur and test those theories by observing behavior.
Criminological theories help shape society's response to crime both in terms of preventing criminal behavior and responding to it after it occurs.
Development of Criminology The discipline of criminology has evolved in three phases, beginning in the 18th century. Although crime and criminals have been around for as long as societies have existed, the systematic study of these phenomena did not begin until the late s.
When scholars first distinguished crime from sin, they made possible explanations of criminal behavior that were not theological religious. This, in turn, allowed for the dispassionate, scientific study of why crime occurs.
The development of this study is now known as the era of classical criminology. The second phase, which began in the 19th century, is referred to as modern criminology. During this era, criminology distinguished itself as a subspecialty within the emerging disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics.
Scholars formed criminological societies and founded criminology journals. Criminologists conducted empirical tests observations or experiments of their theories, rather than relying solely on speculation, and consequently developed a wide range of theories.
The third phase, beginning in the second half of the 20th century, may best be called independent criminology. During this period, criminology began to assert its independence from the traditional disciplines that spawned it. In Western Europe, the United States, and Canada, criminologists expanded their professional associations and published an increasing number of journals.
A number of universities developed graduate programs in criminology. Criminological theories have become more multidisciplinary spanning various fields of study because independent criminologists seek to understand crime itself rather than study crime as one aspect of an overall sociological or psychological theory.
Classical Criminology The issues of crime and punishment have aroused interest and discussion since ancient times. Scriptures dating from the 10th century BC prohibit certain acts and provide consequences for those who disobey these rules. In the 5th century BC Greek historian Thucydides wrote about the usefulness of the death penalty.
With the development of Christianity in the 1st century AD, questions of crime and punishment were almost always discussed in religious terms. Christian thought tended to emphasize personal responsibility for wrongdoing; requiring penitence remorse by the criminal in exchange for salvation, or forgiveness, by God.
Although punishment practices during the Middle Ages 5th century to 15th century were often brutal, the church generally had a moderating influence. Christian philosophers expressed in their writings that the legitimate purpose of punishment was to reform and salvage the erring sinner.
It was not until the 18th century, however, that penal policy and thereby the understanding of crime was subject to systematic consideration. Authors began to condemn the frequent use of torture and the widespread imposition of capital punishment the death penalty and other brutal and degrading sanctions penalties.
In this work, Beccaria criticized the use of torture and secret judicial proceedings and advocated abolition of the death penalty. Finally, Beccaria argued that penalties imposed for criminal offenses should be in proportion to the seriousness of the offense.
Around this same time, British philosopher Jeremy Bentham proposed the systematic codification arrangement of criminal law. He attacked the excessive severity of punishments prescribed in the criminal law. Many of Bentham's ideas were introduced as legislation into the British Parliament, and his efforts laid the groundwork for substantial legal reform in the next generation.
In part as a result of Bentham's proposals, the number of crimes in England punishable by the death penalty was reduced from about at the beginning of the 19th century to 4 by The work of these 18th-century legal reformers did not produce an organized body of knowledge about why and when crime occurs.
Rather, it served as the intellectual foundation for the field of criminology. Beccaria, Bentham, and those who followed them made crime and criminals a legitimate subject for scientific inquiry. Modern Criminology At the beginning of the 19th century, scholars began to apply the concepts and technologies of the rapidly developing biological and behavioral sciences to the study of crime.A Sociology Essay.
Prompt: Discuss how Robert Merton’s strain theory fits into the functionalist theory of deviance and crime. Critically evaluate strain theory and the functionalist theory of deviance and crime from the perspective of conflict, feminist and symbolic interactionist theories.
Deviance, the violation of dominant societal norms, is defined from a sociological perspective. The major theorists associated with conflict theory, including Karl Marx and Max Weber, are discussed.
Apr 05, · Subcultural theories build upon the work of Merton. They say that deviance is the result of individuals conforming to the values and norms of a social group to which they belong, if you belong to a social group whose norms differ from those of the main society then you will become a deviant.
Introduction to Sociology – 1st Canadian Edition. Main Body. Chapter 3. Theoretical Perspectives on Culture. Discuss the major theoretical approaches to cultural interpretation; Introduction to Culture. there were few systems in place to prevent the crime until quite recently.
These examples show a range of enforcement in formal norms. Cultural and social norms supporting different types of violence Child maltreatment L Female children are valued less in society than males (e.g.
Peru , where female children are considered to have less social and economic potential). The symbolic interaction perspective, also called symbolic interactionism, is a major framework of sociology theory.
This perspective focuses on the symbolic meaning that people develop and rely upon in the process of social interaction. Conflict theory emphasizes the role of coercion and power.