Globalisation in ecuador

Oil drilling and road building are about to begin in the world's most biodiverse rain-forest on the planet, in the northwest Amazon - in the heart of Yasuni National Park, along the Tiputini River in Ecuador. Yasuni seems to be a National Park in name only. There has already been one road built through it by a Texas oil company called Maxus, 12 years ago. The companies needed to pacify the "savage" indians before stealing their land and contaminating their water.

Globalisation in ecuador

Although bananas may only look like a fruit, they represent a wide variety of environmental, economic, social, and political problems.

The banana trade symbolizes economic imperialism, injustices in the global trade market, and the globalization of the agricultural economy [1]. Bananas are also number four on the list of staple crops in the world and one of the biggest profit makers in supermarkets, making them critical for economic and global food security [2].

Bananas have become such a common, inexpensive grocery item that we often forget where they Globalisation in ecuador from and how they got here.

Bananas are cheap for a reason, having adopted unfair work trends such as low wages and long hours which are found in many global industries.

Consequently, the lives of workers in developing countries have been sacrificed in order to keep bananas affordable [4]. Employees face shocking working conditions and extremely low wages.

Furthermore, the large transnational banana companies that control wages, prices in the global banana trade, represent a real threat to small farmers [5]. In fact, economic wars have been fought over bananas, and they are the continuing cause of economic and political problems.

They are also one Globalisation in ecuador the most environmentally harmful agricultural industries [6].


Produced on multiple continents and consumed around the world, who knew that this popular, healthy fruit could cause such massive destruction?

How did bananas become such massive problem? The history of the banana industry is long, dark, and complex. Economic and political problems and the mistreatment of workers date back to the late s in Honduras, when the first railway system that connected Central America with North America was built.

Globalisation in ecuador

Bananas are a very difficult fruit to transport and keep fresh, and the railways allowed the export of bananas [7]. American businessmen very quickly bought large plots of land and shipped bananas to the United States, and a very prominent American corporation called the United Fruit Company UFC controlled the trade.

UFC soon owned much of the best agricultural land in countries such as Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, and the banana industry grew exponentially between and [8].

For example, in UFC owned 63 percent of the million bunches of bananas exported from Latin America [10]. The extent of their power and control was possible because Central America, a continent which historically had been economically weak and politically divided, was powerless against the large corporation.

UFC thrived on the lack of unity, poverty, and corrupt governments [11]. Businessmen were able to manipulate governments to get the best land, and vertically integrate the industry to control all aspects of production and keep prices low [12]. Over the next few decades, Ecuador and many Caribbean islands joined the banana trade, while other transnational corporations emerged.

Although these new producing countries greatly profited from the enormous amounts of exports, production of other industries declined, leading to an unhealthy dependance on the banana. The banana industry in Latin America peaked in ; thereafter, the transnational corporations slowly lost much of their political influence in the banana republics, due to a number of factors such as plant disease, the great depression, and labor issues [13].

However they were still keen to keep a presence in Latin America, and in the s, these transnational fruit corporations intervened when the Guatemalan government attempted to take back land from the corporations to distribute it among the peasants.

The American government, backed by the transnational fruit corporations, overthrew the democratically elected government, and helped elect a president who favored their economic interests [14].

Many complicated agreements exist, and determine which countries may export bananas to which markets. This is a major topic of debate within the World Trade Organization [16].

However, the biggest problem is that developed countries are continually searching for the cheapest bananas, and are willing to ignore the abominable treatment of workers and the worst environmental practices.

Many countries around the world are now involved in this trade, and responsible for its political, economic, social, and environmental problems. Where and how are bananas produced? Bananas are produced in tropical climates around the world, from Mexico to Brazil, from to the Philippines to Madagascar.

For the most part, bananas that are grown for export are grown in large scale plantations up to square kilometers [17]. There are over species of bananas, yet only one is grown for international trade: Banana plants take ten months to grow from a sapling to a fruit bearing tree [19].

The fruit is harvested four to five months later, while they are still green, in large bunches that can weigh up to 80 kilograms [20].

Industry and globalisation - OECD

They are then taken to a packing site where they are separated, washed, wrapped and boxed. The United Nations Agriculture Organization estimates that 30 to 40 percent of bananas are discarded based solely on appearance [21]. The enormous boxes containing the bananas are shipped around the world on freighters with intensive refrigerated units where the bananas are stored in order to prevent pre-mature ripening.

It is estimated that this type of shipping accounts of five percent of world carbon dioxide emissions [22]. Once the fruit arrives in the country of destination, they are artificially ripened in warehouses by spraying them with a chemical called ethylene in carefully controlled temperatures.

They are then transferred usually by road or rail transportation to retailers and wholesalers [23]. In all, the entire process produces large amounts of carbon dioxide emissions and waste.This article connects directly to the globalisation of both education and conflict, and attends to the intersection between these phenomena, by focusing on conflict-induced student migration, an area, which has until recently been neglected in studies of higher education and .

The role of policy evaluation is to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of public policy interventions, assessing the balance between benefits and costs.

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The Winners and Losers of Globalization: Finding a Path to Shared Prosperity