Ethical concerns in the whole bio-business.
Although widely anticipated to happen in the next several years, hardly anyone expected it to be this year. Of course, economic power does not translate immediately and directly into political power.
On the contrary, if we look at the rise of previous hegemons, notably the UK in the nineteenth century and the US in the twentieth century, there has always been a significant time lag between their emergence as great economic powers and their subsequent arrival as major hegemonic powers enjoying broader political, Globalisation is westernisation and military as well as economic influence.
That said, however, economic power was the fundamental pre-condition for, and prelude to, their emergence as global hegemons. The same will be true of China. China is already a major economic power. In contrast, its political and cultural influence for the most part remains extremely limited.
It is important to distinguish, in this context, between the developing and the developed world. China enjoys very little influence in the latter, but its extraordinary success as a developing country is seen by many in the developing world as a model from which they can learn and which they seek to emulate.
Africa is the clearest case in point. This is only to be expected: Profound changes are already underway in the region. As its historic sphere of influence, East Asia is the one region in the world where China has sought to exercise increasing diplomatic influence.
East Asia will become increasingly China-centric, a process which is likely to prove irresistible. Certainly, in terms of soft power, it lags hugely behind the United States and is likely to continue to do so for a long time to come. There are three key reasons for this.
People do not aspire to be poor, they aspire to be rich. That is the main reason why people in the rich world do not look to China as a model. While China is poor its ability to influence is bound to be strictly limited.
For over two hundred years, the world has become hugely familiar with Western ideas, institutions, languages, polities, history, religion, values and ideas. As a consequence, the world — with the partial exception, for historical reasons, of East Asia — remains extremely ignorant about China.
But this state of affairs has begun to change. With Europe in precipitous decline and America at a rather earlier stage of the same process, the high-water mark of Westernisation has now passed. The final reason is that China is profoundly different from the West.
This serves to accentuate the point about unfamiliarity. Hitherto, all the major powers — with the relatively brief exception of Japan — have been Western or primarily Western. China comes from very different historical and cultural roots.
It is not Western, never has been and never will be: As a consequence, the West finds it very difficult to understand China: The great challenge facing the West over the course of this century will be trying to make sense of China.
By the same token, this profound cultural difference is why the growth of Chinese influence in the broadest sense — its hegemonic capacity — will be a long and drawn-out process.
It exercises a powerful gravitational pull on countless countries around the world, from Australasia and Africa to Latin America, from East Asia and Central Asia to Europe.
But that remains the exception rather than the norm.Globalization - A culture or cultures, with its economic and social aspects, spreading throughout the world. Being available, or, practised in, or, melding into the population of other countries throughout the world.
Westernization - The cultures. Globalisation is Westernisation Globalisation is Westernisation, and aspects of ‘the West’ can be found all around the world today – from the consumer culture of Western capitalism (with cultural icons such as McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, Levi Jeans and Starbucks), the spread of European languages (such as English), styles of dress, eating habits and TV viewing habits (Tomlinson, ).
Показана невозможность достичь предложенного обществу либеральной властью политического компромисса в оценке большевистской революции г. Report No 55 Gender and Development: Concepts and Definitions Prepared for the Department for International Development (DFID) .
How to Prepare for JNU Entrance Exams? Recommended readings for all courses of entrance exams by Jawaharlal Nehru University, .
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