Writing without an alphabet Pali is a phonetic language with no written alphabet of its own. Students of the language have therefore relied on their own native alphabets to read and write Pali, ever since the 1st century BCE, when Sri Lankan scribes first recorded the Tipitaka in the Sinhala alphabet.
Direction Various The Greeks were the first Europeans to learn to write with an alphabet, and from them alphabetic writing spread to the rest of Europe, eventually leading down to all modern European alphabets. Incidentally, the Greeks tried writing once before. However, the syllabary was not well suited to write Greek, and the exact pronunciation of Mycenaean words remains somewhat obcure.
The alphabet, on the other hand, allowed a more precise record of the sounds in the language. From the shape of the letters, it is clear that the Greeks adopted the alphabet the Phoenician script, mostly like during the late 9th century BCE.
You can see the similarities between the scripts in the comparision chart at the undefined page. Unlike Greek, the Phoenician alphabet only had letters for consonants. When the Greeks adopted the alphabet, they found letters representing sounds not found in Greek. Instead of throwing them away, they modified the extraneous letters to represent vowels.
For example, the Phoenician letter 'aleph which stood for a glottal stop became the Greek letter alpha which stands for [a] sound. There were many variants of the early Greek alphabet, each suited to a local dialect. Eventually the Ionian alphabet was adopted in all Greek-speaking states, but before that happened, the Euboean variant was carried to the Italic peninsula and adopted by Etruscan and eventually Latin.
The following chart compare various early variants, the Phoenician equivalent, the modern alphabet, and pronunciations. These represent the phonetic values of the Greek letters in Classical and modern times respectively.
While there are many differences between the many variants of the early Greek alphabet, enough similarities exist to suggest the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet once and splintered rapidly into local variants rather than adopting multiple times.
Writing Direction Early Greek was written right-to-left, just like Phoenician. However, eventually its direction changed to boustrophedon which means "ox-turning"where the direction of writing changes every line.
For instance, you start on the right of the writing surfacd and writes leftward, and when you reach the leftmost end, you reverse your direction and starting writing toward the right. Even more confusing is that the orientation of the letter themselves is dependent on the direction of writing as well.
In the above chart, the letters are drawn as if they were being written from left-to-right. If I were to write right-to-left, I would horizontally flip the letters like they were viewed in a mirror. Boustrophedon was an intermediate stage, and by the 5th century BCE, left-to-right became the de-facto direction of writing.
This change became standard in the Hellenistic world, and later in Rome as well, leading to the present day writing direction of Greek and Roman alphabets.
Numerals Greek letters were also used to denote numbers as well. They employed two separate systems, acrophonic and alphabet. The acrophonic system uses a few symbols to represent the numbers, as you can see below.
As illustrated in the above example the "one" numeral can be repeated as many as four times to get to the right number.
To represent five, instead of repeating the "one" numeral five times, the "five" numeral is used instead. To represent numbers larger than 5 and less than 10, the "five" numeral followed by as many as four "one" numerals would be used. The same mechanism would be used for larger numbers.
In the alphabetic numeral system each Greek letter has a numeric value. Legacy The Greek alphabet is still a living writing system in Greece as well as Greek communities around the world.
During its nearly long history, it was the basis for Etruscan and by extension LatinCopticGothicand Cyrillic scripts, as well as provided various degrees of influence on GlagoliticArmenianand Georgian scripts.Fyodor Dosteivsky, writing The Idiot in Florence in the nineteenth century, describes his princely hero come home to Russia from Switzerland, writing the signature in Cyrillic of the fourteenth-century abbot Paphnutius, whose name mirror-reflects that of the Desert Father in the Egyptian Thebaid.
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The mirror and water images of the alphabets H, I, O, N and X are same. What is the advantage of Mirror Images? However, it may look awkward to hold the question paper little higher in your hand when writing a paper.
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Unicode text tools for generating portable effects like anti-surveillance, reversing words, flipping text, mirror words, reducing text, and text shrinking. A secret encoder/decoder for sending private messages in public places like Facebook and Twitter. The Greeks were the first Europeans to learn to write with an alphabet, and from them alphabetic writing spread to the rest of Europe, eventually leading down to all modern European alphabets. The writing featured a bizarre mixture of letters from archaic alphabets and no one was able to decipher the messages. She said the devil dictated the messages to her (Image: The Image Bank).
Write any (A To Z) alphabet on image online free. Make A to Z alphabets and Letters HD picture for mobile background and profile dp. you can find more image here ashio-midori.com alphabet photos online website app. Etruscan (mekh Rasnal) The Etruscan language was spoken by the Etruscans in Etruria (Tuscany and Umbria) until about the 1st century AD.
After which it continued to be studied by priests and scholars, and it was used in religious ceremonies until the early 5th century AD.