December 5, at 3: Great website and thanks! Lots more questions about appeals and PCT, almost nothing on claims. I felt like questions were really confusing.
Posted on December 12, by Scott Alexander Aquinas famously said: For example, take medical research. Suppose a certain drug is weakly effective against a certain disease.
After a few years, a bunch of different research groups have gotten their hands on it and done all sorts of different studies. But there will also be random noise caused by inevitable variation and by some of the experiments being better quality than others.
In the end, we might expect something looking kind of like a bell curve. We see that the peak of the curve is somewhere to the right of neutral — ie weakly effective — and that there are about 15 studies that find this correct result.
But there are also about 5 studies that find that the drug is very good, and 5 studies missing the sign entirely and finding that the drug is actively bad.
This is before we get into fraud or statistical malpractice. As we increase experimental rigor, the bell curve might get squashed horizontally, but there will still be a bell curve.
But maybe the drug is more effective in bipolar i than in bipolar ii Depakote, for example Or maybe the drug is very effective against bipolar mania, but much less effective against bipolar depression Depakote again.
And the latest study shows that their drug is great! Or they could add all of those studies about slightly different things. Depakote is ineffective at treating bipolar depression. Depakote is ineffective at maintenance bipolar therapy. Depakote is ineffective at bipolar ii.
I think medical science is still pretty healthy, and that the consensus of doctors and researchers is more-or-less right on most controversial medical issues. Like, take the minimum wage question please. We all know about the Krueger and Card study in New Jersey that found no evidence that high minimum wages hurt the economy.
We probably also know the counterclaims that it was completely debunked as despicable dishonest statistical malpractice. Maybe some of us know Card and Krueger wrote a pretty convincing rebuttal of those claims. Or that a bunch of large and methodologically advanced studies have come out since then, some finding no effect like Dubeothers finding strong effects like Rubinstein and Wither.One shot case study (Pre-Experimental Design) § Difference between pre and post test are changed changes § Therefore all you can report is a change in score, cannot report that it was due to treatment.
Experimental Design. Shakira is a psychologist who has been hired by an advertising agency. She needs to know what type of spokesperson works best to sell products to teenagers.
One difference between the experimental and other methods in research has to do with the: An important difference between experimental and nonexperimental research is that the independent variable in experimental research is: The primary defect of the one-shot case study is. Incorporation of Feedback during Beat Synchronization is an Index of Neural Maturation and Reading Skills Kali Woodruff Carr, Ahren B.
Fitzroy, Adam Tierney, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus. Experimental Research Designs 59 CHAPTER 5 validity of an experimental design. Each research study poses different challenges that require thoughtful, often creative solutions.
As Sandelowski and colleagues () have The simplest experimental design tests just one . One of the reasons for the recognition of case study as a research method is Design of case study In an intrinsic case study, a researcher examines the case for its own sake.
For instance, why does student A, age eight, fail to read when most children at that age can.