Low oil prices and sanctions over Ukraine have been taking their toll in the Russian economy. In his annual state-of-the-nation address to parliament and the nation, President Vladimir Putin struck a conciliatory tone towards Western nations and turned the spotlight on domestic economic and social issues.
In the s, reform programs are aimed at overhauling the Soviet-era pedagogical philosophy and substantially revising curricula. Inadequate funding has frustrated attainment of these goals, however, and the teaching profession has lost talented individuals because of low pay. That set of ethics stressed the primacy of the collective over the interests of the individual.
Therefore, for both teachers and students, creativity and individualism were discouraged. The Soviet system also maintained some traditions from tsarist times, such as the five-point grading scale, formal and regimented classroom environments, and standard school uniforms--dark dresses with white collars for girls, white shirts and black pants for boys.
As in other areas of Soviet life, the need for reform in education was felt in the s. Reform programs in that period called for new curricula, textbooks, and teaching methods. The chief aim of those programs was to create a "new school" that would better equip Soviet citizens to deal with the modern, technologically advanced nation that Soviet leaders foresaw in the future.
Nevertheless, in the s facilities generally were inadequate, overcrowding was common, and equipment and materials were in short supply. At the same time, young Russians became increasingly cynical about the Marxist-Leninist philosophy they were forced to absorb, as well as the stifling of self-expression and individual responsibility.
In the last years of the Soviet Union, funding was inadequate for the large-scale establishment of "new schools," and requirements of ideological purity continued to smother the new pedagogical creativity that was heralded in official pronouncements.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the transition toward democracy had a profound effect on national education policy. In a reform philosophy was set forth in the Law on Education.
The fundamental principle of that law was the removal of state control from education policy.
|Russia vs United States Education Stats Compared||The exam is similar to the American SAT-s and is a mandatory requirement for acceptance into higher education institutions.|
|Russia’s Education Reform | QS||Russia Table of Contents In the Soviet period, education was highly centralized, and indoctrination in Marxist-Leninist theory was a major element of every school's curriculum. The schools' additional ideological function left a legacy in the post-Soviet system that has proved difficult for educators to overcome.|
In regions with non-Russian populations, that meant that educational institutions could base their curricula and teaching methods on national and historical traditions. In all regions, enactment of the law meant significant autonomy for local authorities to choose education strategies most appropriate to the time and place.
Post-Soviet education reform also stressed teaching objectively, thus discarding all forms of the narrow, institutional views that had dominated the previous era and preparing young people to deal with all aspects of the society they would encounter by presenting a broader interpretation of the world.
Post-Soviet educational philosophy also has sought to integrate education with the production and economic processes into which graduates will pass in adult life. Envisioning a program of continuous education lasting throughout the lifetime of an individual, this concept has as its goal converting the education process from an economic burden on the state to an engine of economic progress.
Especially important in this program is the reorientation of vocational training to complement the economic reforms of the s. New systems of education for farmers and various types of on-the-job training for adults have been introduced, and new curricula in economics stress understanding of market economies.
It stipulates that "basic general education is compulsory" and that parents or guardians are responsible for ensuring that children obtain schooling.
Although such access continued to exist in principle in the mids, various components of the system were increasingly inadequate. In some A total of 70, general primary and secondary schools and 82, preschools were in operation at that time.
Of the former category, 48, were in rural areas and 21, in urban areas. In the projected budgetary expenditure for education was about 3.
The financing system made educational institutions fully dependent on state funds; outside sources of funding did not exist because no tax advantages accrued from investing in education. Infrastructure Because the Soviet Union had not built enough schools to accommodate increasing enrollment, Russia inherited a system of very large, overcrowded schools with a decaying infrastructure.
By the late s, 21 percent of students were attending schools with no central heating, and 30 percent were learning in buildings with no running water. In Russia had nearly 67, primary and secondary schools, which provided an average per-pupil space of 2.
About one-quarter of schools housed or more students. In Russia was forced to close about 20, of its schools because of physical inadequacy, and an estimated one-third of the national school capacity was in need of large-scale repair.
In one of every two students attended a school operating on two or three shifts. Rural schools, which make up about 75 percent of the national total, were in especially bad condition.Watch video · Education in Russia is going through radical and at times controversial changes.
RT spoke to Russia’s Minister of Education and Science Andrey Fursenko to find out how educational standards will be raised and if that will help stop the brain drain. The system consists of obligatory basic education and higher education.
Education in Russia is compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and It consists of primary school education for ages , followed by senior school for ages The education system in Russia 6 comments If you're looking to enrol your child in the Russian education system, here is a guide to preschool, primary and secondary education in Russia.
Russia’s Education Reform by Ina Chiriliuc Almost two years after Russia fully introduced its Unified State Exam (later referred to as EGE –“Ediny Gosudarstvenny Ekzamen”), students, parents and teachers are still dismayed by the change.
Education in Russia, webdossier by Education Worldwide, a portal of the German Education Server Russian Education Centre is a legally authorized representative working under the Aegis of the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation.
Fabricated criminal cases, farcical trials, inhumane prison conditions. A new grassroots group in Russia's east tries to combat what it says are particularly egregious signs of a dysfunctional just.