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History[ edit ] The first airbrush, depending on the definition, was patented in Patent Numberby Francis Edgar Stanley of Newton, Massachusetts.
Stanley and his twin brother later invented a process for continuously coating photographic plates Stanley Dry Plate Company but are perhaps best known for their Stanley Steamer. The first instrument to be named the "paint distributor" was developed by Abner Peeler "for the painting of watercolors and other artistic purposes" and used a hand-operated compressor to supply continuous air.
It was rather crude, being based on a number of spare parts in a jeweller's workshop such as old screwdrivers and welding torches. It took 4 years of further development before a working prototype was developed by Liberty Walkup of Mt.
Walkup repatented the work under the name of "air-brush", a name his wife Phoebe Walkup came up with. Thus the formal birth of the name 'Air Brush' can be traced to a stakeholders meeting of the new Air Brush Manufacturing Co.
His wife would later go on to be the founder of the Illinois Art School where airbrushing was taught to students from all over the world.
The first certain 'atomising' type airbrush was invented by Charles Burdick in and presented by Thayer and Chandler art materials company at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Aerograph, Burdick's original company, still makes and sells airbrushes in England. Badger Air-Brush continues the Thayer and Chandler tradition of manufacturing quality airbrush guns, tools and compressors out of Franklin Park, Illinois.
Design[ edit ] An airbrush works by passing a stream of fast moving compressed air through a venturiwhich creates a local reduction in air pressure suction that allows paint to be pulled from an interconnected reservoir at normal atmospheric pressure.
The high velocity of the air atomizes the paint into very tiny droplets as it blows past a very fine paint-metering component. The paint is carried onto paper or other surfaces. The operator controls the amount of paint using a variable trigger which opens more or less a very fine tapered needle that is the control element of the paint-metering component.
An extremely fine degree of atomization is what allows an artist to create such smooth blending effects using the airbrush. The technique allows for the blending of two or more colors in a seamless way, with one color slowly becoming another color. Freehand airbrushed images, without the aid of stencils or friskets, have a floating quality, with softly defined edges between colors, and between foreground and background colors.
A skilled airbrush artist can produce paintings of photographic realism or can simulate almost any painting medium. Painting at this skill level involves supplementary tools, such as masks and frisketsand very careful planning. Some airbrushes use pressures as low as 20 psi 1.
Larger "spray guns" as used for automobile spray-painting need psi 6. They are capable of delivering a heavier coating more rapidly over a wide area.
Even with small artist airbrushes using acrylic paint, artists must be careful not to breathe in the atomized paint, which floats in the air for minutes and can go deep into the lungs. With commercial spray guns for automobiles, it is vital that the painter have a clean air source to breathe, because automotive paint is far more harmful to the lungs than acrylic.
Certain spray guns, called High-Volume Low-Pressure HVLP spray guns, are designed to deliver the same high volumes of paint without requiring such high pressures.
Types[ edit ] Aerograph Super 63, a gravity-fed, double-action, internal mix airbrush Airbrushes are usually classified by three characteristics. The first characteristic is the action performed by the user to trigger the paint flow while the second is the mechanism for feeding the paint into the airbrush and the third is the point at which the paint and air mix.
Trigger[ edit ] The simplest airbrushes work with a single-action mechanism where the depression of the trigger actuates air flow through the airbrush. The airbrush's color flow and spray pattern are adjusted separately from the trigger action.
This is done through an adjustment of the airbrush's needle placement within its paint tip, by the turning of the paint tip on an external mix airbrush Badger or Paasche Model H are good examples of single-action external mix airbrushes or the turning of a needle setting dial on an internal mix airbrush Badger or Iwata SAR are good examples of single-action internal mix airbrushes.
The color volume and spray pattern are maintained at a fixed level until the airbrush user re-adjust the setting. Single-action airbrushes are simpler to use and generally less expensive, but they present limitations in applications in which the user wishes to do something more artistic than simply apply a good, uniform coat of color.
Dual-action or double-action airbrushes enable the simultaneous adjustment of both air and color at the trigger, by allowing the user to actuate air by depressing the trigger and simultaneously adjust color by sliding the trigger back and forth.
This allows for greater spray control and enables a wider variety of artistic effects.
This type of airbrush requires some amount of practice to become proficient in triggering technique and control, but it offers greater artistic versatility to the artists once the triggering technique is learned.
Dual-action airbrushes Badger PatriotPaasche VL, Iwata CM-C are all good examples of dual-action airbrushes are of a more sophisticated design model than single-action airbrushes, which tends to make them the more expensive of the two.
Feed system[ edit ] Paint can be fed by gravity from a paint reservoir sitting atop the airbrush called gravity feed or siphoned from a reservoir mounted below bottom feed or on the side side feed.
Each feed type carries unique advantages. Gravity feed instruments require less air pressure for suction as the gravity pulls the paint into the mixing chamber. Typically instruments with the finest mist atomization and detail requirements use this method since less air pressure allows for finer control paint flow and less overspray.
Side- and bottom-feed instruments allow the artist to see over the top, with the former sometimes offering left-handed and right-handed options to suit the artist. A bottom feed airbrush typically holds a larger capacity of paint than the other types, and is often preferable for larger scale work such as automotive applications and tee-shirt design.
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An airbrush is a small, air-operated tool that sprays various media, most often paint but also ink and dye, and foundation by a process of nebulization. Spray painting developed from the airbrush and is considered to employ a type of airbrush. Lubuntu (/ l ʊ ˈ b ʊ n t uː / luu-BUUN-too) is a lightweight Linux distribution based on Ubuntu, using the LXQt desktop environment in place of Ubuntu's GNOME desktop.
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