It is a starting point is to revisit Enlightenment principles that transformed the word in the last years and to ground them in emerging models of human nature.
Another name for the German Enlightenment. Deism A system of faith to which many of the French philosophes and other Enlightenment thinkers subscribed. Enlightened Absolutism A trend in European governments during the later part of the Enlightenment, in which a number of absolute monarchs adopted Enlightenment-inspired reforms yet retained a firm grip on power.
Instead, the massive middle class revolted and set up its own government. Although this new government was effective for a few years, internal dissent grew and power switched hands repeatedly, until France plunged into the brutally violent Reign of Terror of — Critics saw this violence as a direct result of Enlightenment thought and as evidence that the masses were not fit to govern themselves.
The new monarchs not only changed the religious course of England and the idea of divine right but also allowed the additional personal liberties necessary for the Enlightenment to truly flourish.
Individualism One of the cornerstones of the Enlightenment, a philosophy stressing the recognition of every person as a valuable individual with inalienable, inborn rights. Mercantilism The economic belief that a favorable balance of trade—that is, more exports than imports—would yield more gold and silver, and thus overall wealth and power, for a country.
Governments tended to monitor and meddle with their mercantilist systems closely, which Scottish economist Adam Smith denounced as bad economic practice in his Wealth of Nations. Philosophes The general term for those academics and intellectuals who became the leading voices of the French Enlightenment during the eighteenth century.
Rationalism Arguably the foundation of the Enlightenment, the belief that, by using the power of reason, humans could arrive at truth and improve human life. Relativism Another fundamental philosophy of the Enlightenment, which declared that different ideas, cultures, and beliefs had equal merit.
Relativism developed in reaction to the age of exploration, which increased European exposure to a variety of peoples and cultures across the world. Romanticism A movement that surfaced near the end of the Enlightenment that placed emphasis on innate emotions and instincts rather than reason, as well as on the virtues of existing in a natural state.
Salons Gathering places for wealthy, intellectually minded elites during the years during and prior to the Enlightenment. The salons typically held weekly meetings where upper-class citizens gathered to discuss the political and social theories of the day.
Scientific Revolution A gradual development of thought and approaches to the study of the universe that took place from approximately to and paved the way for the Enlightenment.
The result was not only new human knowledge but also a new perspective on the acquisition of knowledge, such as the scientific method. Skepticism A philosophical movement that emerged in response to rationalism and maintained that human perception is too relative to be considered credible.
Social Contract An idea in political philosophy, generally associated with John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, stating that a government and its subjects enter into an implicit contract when that government takes power.
In exchange for ceding some freedoms to the government and its established laws, the subjects expect and demand mutual protection. Though it revealed a decided one-sidedness of the German Enlightenment, the movement did not sustain itself for very long. The battle would eventually spread throughout Germany and involve many other countries on both sides, resulting in the death of nearly a third of the German population and unfathomable destruction.
Enlightenment thinkers such as John Comenius and Hugo Grotius reacted against the war with treatises about education, international relations, and the nature of war itself.Key Ideas of the Enlightenment This Essay Key Ideas of the Enlightenment and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on ashio-midori.com Autor: joyce67 • October 30, • /5(1).
There is a renowned Scottish Enlightenment (key figures are Frances Hutcheson, Adam Smith, David Hume, Thomas Reid), and the related idea that the results of philosophy ought to be of use to common people, are characteristic ideas of the Enlightenment, particularly pronounced in the Scottish Enlightenment.
An Essay on Man, ed. by M.
Essay on Influence of the Enlightenment on American History - It was during and after the American Revolution that many of the main ideas of the Enlightenment were used as the guidelines to help influence things such as the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.
Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment was an astonishing movement of philosophers in the 18th century who shared and opposed each other’s ideas, reasons, questions, and concerns about several different beliefs such as religious tolerance, deism (God), government, society, and knowledge.
The Influence of Enlightenment Ideas Essay Words | 3 Pages. The ideas from the Enlightenment and its thinkers greatly influenced the world today, everything from our ideas of modern government to our view of everyday life. Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment was an astonishing movement of philosophers in the 18th century who shared and opposed each other’s ideas, reasons, questions, and concerns about several different beliefs such as religious tolerance, deism (God), government, society, and knowledge.