United States Senate election in Ohio, Congressman Theodore Burton had been elected as senator in Foraker's place inand announced that he would seek a second term in the elections. By this time, the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had been ratified, giving the people the right to elect senators, and Ohio had instituted primary elections for the office.
Feminist opponents of pornography—such as Andrea DworkinCatharine MacKinnonRobin MorganDiana RussellAlice SchwarzerGail Dinesand Robert Jensen —argue that pornography is harmful to women, and constitutes strong causality or facilitation of violence against women. Catharine McKinnon and Andrea Dworkin had separately staked out a position that pornography was inherently exploitative toward women, and they called for a civil law to make pornographers accountable for harms that could be shown to result from the use, production, and circulation of their publications.
This is said to be true even when the women are being presented as enjoying themselves. Gail Dines holds that pornography, exemplified by gonzo pornographyis becoming increasingly violent and that women who perform in pornography are brutalized in the process of its production.
The feminist anti-pornography movement was galvanized by the publication of Ordealin which Linda Boreman who under the name of "Linda Lovelace" had starred in Deep Throat stated that she had been beaten, raped, and pimped by her husband Chuck Traynorand that Traynor had forced her at gunpoint to make scenes in Deep Throat, as well as forcing her, by use of both physical violence against Boreman as well as emotional abuse and outright threats of violence, to make other pornographic films.
Dworkin, MacKinnon, and Women Against Pornography issued public statements of support for Boreman, and worked with her in public appearances and speeches. Social harm from exposure to pornography[ edit ] Women reduced to sex objects[ edit ] On-face ejaculation and anal sex are increasingly popular among men, following trends in porn.
Generally, research has been focused around the effects of voluntary viewing of pornography. There have also been studies analyzing the inadvertent exposure to explicit sexual content, including: It has been found that most exposure to pornography online is unsolicited and by accident.
Paul of Indiana University published a controlled study looking at such inadvertent exposure to pornography in regards to the feeling of anonymity titled "The Role of Anonymity in the Effects of Inadvertent Exposure to Online Pornography Among Young Adult Males.
After completing an arbitrary survey, they were shown a second pop-up clip consisting either of sexual or nonsexual content. Half of the subjects exposed to either clip believed they were viewing the content nonanonymously. The other half believed they were anonymous, and they were not being monitored.
They were then asked if they would rather view hardcore pornography, softcore pornography, or nonsexual material. The hardcore pornography depicted women as sexual objects, and male-superiority. The softcore pornography was less graphic. The higher the score, the higher the subjects are thought to hold sexist views.
Those who believed they were anonymous were less likely to be conscious of their monitoring compared to the nonanonymous group. It turns out, those who were exposed to sexual content and believed they were anonymous, were the most likely to choose the hardcore pornography that depicts the most objectification of women.
The next highest choice for the hardcore pornography was the group exposed to nonsexual material, yet believed to be anonymous. These two groups were the most likely to hold hostile sexist attitudes towards women after the 10 second inadvertent exposure to sexual content compared to before the study.
It is concluded that being exposed to sexual content, even when it is unwanted, leads men to develop harsher sexist attitudes towards women. The greater intrigue for men to view hardcore and unusual pornography was greater when they believed to be doing so anonymously.
This is most likely tied to the theory of deindividuation. The theory states that a person detaches his or her self from personal responsibility and awareness as an individual, and is more likely to act differently than when their behaviors are socially attached to his or her character.
Since the feeling of anonymity disregard social norms, there is a higher chance of pursuing more extreme stimuli.
This study does not prove that the men willing to watch the hardcore pornography and hold more sexist views are more likely to act out these desires and beliefs toward women. Valerie Webber in her article "Shades of Gay: Performance of Girl-on-Girl Pornography and mobile authenticities" differentiates the sex depicted in porn and personal, private sexual encounters.
At first, she argues that performing sex produces normative ideas about what makes sex authentic. These normative beliefs then transfer into personal experiences where people feel an obligation to perform sex as they have viewed it in pornography.There is a moderate amount of literature on the subject of Elders as educators, administrators, leaders and decision-makers who play crucial roles in decision-making and in teaching.
Ellen Willis (who coined the term "pro-sex feminism") states "As we saw it, the claim that 'pornography is violence against women' was code for the neo-Victorian idea that men want sex and women endure it." Sex-positive feminists take a variety of views towards existing pornography.
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